Cambronne, Pierre-Jacques-Étienne, viscount

   military figure
   Born in Nantes, Pierre-Jacques-Étienne, viscount Cambronne, joined the army as a volunteer in 1792 and took part in the military campaigns of the Revolution and the Empire, being named brigadier, then major general in the Imperial Guard. Having accompanied Napoléon Bonaparte (see napoléon i) to Elba (1814), he returned with him in 1815, during the hundred days and was made a count and a peer of France. During the Battle of Waterloo (June 1815), he was part of the "last division" of the Old Guard and, summoned to surrender, according to tradition famously replied, "the Guard dies, it does not surrender" (a phrase that would later be used by victor hugo in his Les Misérables). At the Battle of Waterloo, Cambronne was wounded and was taken prisoner to England. Upon his return to France, he was tried before a military tribunal. Defended by pierre berryer, he was acquitted and shortly after was given the command of a post at Lille.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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